## Essential Circuit Analysis Using Proteus (Energ...

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Essential Circuit Analysis Using Proteus (Energ...

This textbook provides a compact but comprehensive treatment that guides students through the analysis of circuits, using Proteus. The book focuses on solving problems using updated market-standard software, corresponding to all key concepts covered in the classroom. The author uses his extensive classroom experience to guide students toward a deeper understanding of key concepts while they gain facility with the software they will need to master for later studies and practical use in their engineering careers. The book includes detailed exercises and examples that provide better grasping to students. This book will be ideal as a hands-on source for courses in computer-aided circuit simulation, circuits, electronics, digital logic, and power electronics. Though written primarily for undergraduate and graduate students, the text will also be useful to Ph.D. scholars and practitioners in engineering who are working on Proteus.

Steinmetz's work revolutionized AC circuit theory and analysis, which had been carried out using complicated, time-consuming calculus-based methods. In the groundbreaking paper, "Complex Quantities and Their Use in Electrical Engineering", presented at a July 1893 meeting published in the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE), Steinmetz simplified these complicated methods to "a simple problem of algebra". He systematized the use of complex number phasor representation in electrical engineering education texts, whereby the lower-case letter "j" is used to designate the 90-degree rotation operator in AC system analysis.[2][17] His seminal books and many other AIEE papers "taught a whole generation of engineers how to deal with AC phenomena".[2][18]

Perhaps the earliest use of complex numbers in circuit analysis was by Johann Victor Wietlisbach in 1879 in analysing the Maxwell bridge. Wietlisbach avoided using differential equations by expressing AC currents and voltages as exponential functions with imaginary exponents (see Validity of complex representation). Wietlisbach found the required voltage was given by multiplying the current by a complex number (impedance), although he did not identify this as a general parameter in its own right.[4]

Arthur Kennelly published an influential paper on impedance in 1893. Kennelly arrived at a complex number representation in a rather more direct way than using imaginary exponential functions. Kennelly followed the graphical representation of impedance (showing resistance, reactance, and impedance as the lengths of the sides of a right angle triangle) developed by John Ambrose Fleming in 1889. Impedances could thus be added vectorially. Kennelly realised that this graphical representation of impedance was directly analogous to graphical representation of complex numbers (Argand diagram). Problems in impedance calculation could thus be approached algebraically with a complex number representation.[8][9] Later that same year, Kennelly's work was generalised to all AC circuits by Charles Proteus Steinmetz. Steinmetz not only represented impedances by complex numbers but also voltages and currents. Unlike Kennelly, Steinmetz was thus able to express AC equivalents of DC laws such as Ohm's and Kirchhoff's laws.[10] Steinmetz's work was highly influential in spreading the technique amongst engineers.[11]

Just as impedance extends Ohm's law to cover AC circuits, other results from DC circuit analysis, such as voltage division, current division, Thévenin's theorem and Norton's theorem, can also be extended to AC circuits by replacing resistance with impedance.

What follows below is a derivation of impedance for each of the three basic circuit elements: the resistor, the capacitor, and the inductor. Although the idea can be extended to define the relationship between the voltage and current of any arbitrary signal, these derivations assume sinusoidal signals. In fact, this applies to any arbitrary period

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